[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, InChI=1S/C16H15Cl3O2/c1-20-13-7-3-11(4-8-13)15(16(17,18)19)12-5-9-14(21-2)10-6-12/h3-10,15H,1-2H3, InChI=1/C16H15Cl3O2/c1-20-13-7-3-11(4-8-13)15(16(17,18)19)12-5-9-14(21-2)10-6-12/h3-10,15H,1-2H3, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Methoxychlor Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) EPA Publication No. endstream endobj startxref Methoxychlor MXC caused the induction of cyclin D1 expression and reduced p21 expression associated with G1/S transition, resulting in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, suggesting that increased progression of G1/S transition due to exposure to MXC may result in a poor prognosis for human breast cancer patients [103]. It turned up in human breast milk, and it is assumed to be able to cross the placenta. Some EDCs and their effects on adult ovarian function have been studied extensively over the years, whereas the effects of others remain unclear. ABSTRACT: The current study was designed to examine the effects of a transient embryonic exposure to the pesticide methoxychlor, an endocrine disruptor, on in vivo rat testis development and function. Chemsrc provides methoxychlor(CAS#:72-43-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. �ZL5P!#��ba��`>6�����\[��F�Q��{(�e�Z@�} c���y�4#Ѕ���b`�/��2� G"� It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact. However, the revised IDLH for methoxychlor is 5,000 mg/m 3 based on being 500 times the OSHA PEL of 10 mg/m 3 (500 is … The present study explored whether Methoxychlor (MXC), an insecticide with xenoestrogens activities, given … The IC50 values of HPTE were 1.13±0.10 (human) and 6.87±0.13 μM (rat), respectively. The objective of the present study is to investigate the direct effects of MXC and its metabolite 2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) on two isoforms of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2) in vitro. The central hypothesis of these studies is that exposure to HPTE directly inhibits ovarian steroid biosynthesis, which is able to cause an In the present study, the effects of short‐term methoxychlor exposure on the viability, reproduction, and locomotor behavior of adult seminole ramshorn snails (Planorbella duryi) was assessed.To examine impacts on viability and behavior, individuals were exposed to a water control, vehicle control, or 12.5, 50, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 μg/L of methoxychlor for 48 h; … The prooestrogenic pesticide methoxychlor (MXC), however, has shown a differential effect on proliferative activity. methoxychlor at 0.005 milligrams per day. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact. Chapter 2: Relevance to Public Health : The Relevance to Public Health Section evaluates, interprets, and assesses the significance of toxicity data to human health. [s�@b] �b�D��$ $� �` 1a'#�:���J��� I(@ Removal of external Ca²⁺ abolished methoxychlor's effect. Sprayed methoxychlor settles on the ground or in aquatic ecosystems, where it can be detected in sediments. Methoxychlor (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally for 1, 4, or 7 days. Revised IDLH: 5,000 mg/m 3 Basis for revised IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that an acute exposure to a high concentration of methoxychlor would impede escape or cause any irreversible health effects within 30 minutes. EPA believes that consuming this amount or less over a lifetime will not cause chronic or noncancer effects. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail … [6], Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven. h�bbd``b`�$�A�k@���� �$�@\. Tradenames for methoxychlor include Chemform, Maralate, Methoxo, Methoxcide, Metox, and Moxie. Inhalation or ingestion causes generalized depression. Reproductive - Maternal Effects - uterus, cervix, vagina … Moreover, exposure during early development has profound and longer-lasting effects … The experimental evidence cited shows that methoxychlor and p-nonylphenol, at high dosages, adversely affects the mammalian reproductive system in females to a greater degree than males. Liu S(1), Mao B, Bai Y, Liu J, Li H, Li X, Lian Q, Ge RS. h�b```"V9=~�g`��0p4�9�_������Œ6��K�7e�.�'00�u40�u40 Dermal contact with methoxychlor is slightly irritating to skin in humans. WSU researchers concluded that methoxychlor exposure could lead to ovarian disease, obesity and kidney disease in later generations following a study done on rats. 72-43-5 - IAKOZHOLGAGEJT-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Methoxychlor [BSI:ISO] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. [4] Its degradation may take many months. Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water, primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. (3) Reported LD50s for mammals are generally higher than 2 g/kg of body weight (1). Teratogenic effects: In mice, 200 mg/kg/day administered on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy resulted in delayed ossification and wavy ribs in the offspring [2]. 31 0 obj <> endobj NTP: Not evaluated . However, the revised IDLH for methoxychlor is 5,000 mg/m 3 based on being 500 times the OSHA PEL of 10 mg/m 3 (500 is … MXC and HPTE inhibited progesterone and estradiol production in JEG-3 cells. Due to its harm this chemical were no longer allowed to use as pesticide … The RfD is an estimate of the highest daily oral exposure humans can be exposed to without resulting in harmful effects. the general health effects observed following exposure. Methoxychlor is ingested and absorbed by living organisms, and it accumulates in the food chain. … Methoxychlor is a synthetic organochloride insecticide, now obsolete. Embryonic testes were collected at E16 and … Effects of methoxychlor and its metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in vitro Toxicol Lett. In animal models, high doses … Effects of Methoxychlor and Its Metabolite Hydroxychlor on Human Placental 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 and Aromatase in JEG-3 Cells. Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in different cell models. While the in vitro assays supported the estrogenic effects of genistein and methoxychlor and the antiandrogenic effects of methoxychlor, the reactivity of these compounds with ERs α and β could not predict the greater in vivo estrogenic potency of methoxychlor over genistein; nor could the potentiation of the methoxychlor effect on PPS by genistein be … (2) Depression of the central nervous system, progressive weakness, trembling, convulsions, diarrhea, and possibly death are symptoms reported in animals acutely exposed to methoxychlor. Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water, primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was applied to measure [Ca²⁺]i. Methoxychlor at concentrations of 0.1-1 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. [eprints.skums.ac.ir] Methoxychlor was banned after it was found to mimic estrogen, acting as a reproductive toxin leading to infertility in animals. Associated changes in dopamine (DA) content in the anterior (AH), mediobasal (MBH) and posterior hypothalamus … Pesticide properties for Methoxychlor, including approvals, environmental fate, eco-toxicity and human health issues This chemical has formula of C 12 H 10−x Cl x and has another effect to human body such as rashes which is symptom of liver damage. Methoxychlor was used to protect crops, ornamentals, livestock, and pets against fleas, mosquitoes, cockroaches, and other insects. 51 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<84C7B97C0967E14198F469F8DEC5C500><84C7B97C0967E14198F469F8DEC5C500>]/Index[31 38]/Info 30 0 R/Length 94/Prev 73873/Root 32 0 R/Size 69/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Although human health and environmental risk assessments have not been done as a result of the incomplete data for methoxychlor, the Agency has significant concerns about the effects of methoxychlor on human health and the environment, including concerns about its endocrine disruption effects and persistent, bioaccumulative toxicity. When a methoxychlor formulation containing 50% active ingredient and 50% unknown compounds was administered … It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact. 68 0 obj <>stream In this study, the possible effect of Methoxychlor was investigated on the hormone level of LH, FSH, testosterone, spermatogenesis and its possible role in male infertility. Exposure to EDCs is known to cause many reproductive health problems such as infertility, premature ovarian failure, and abnormal sex steroid hormone levels. The use of methoxychlor as a pesticide was banned in the United States in 2003[5] and in the European Union in 2002. Some metabolites may have unwanted side effects. (USCG, 1999) ... 10 … Gestating female rats were transiently administered methoxychlor (MXC) from embryonic day 7 (E7; EO = plug date) through E15. This is a comprehensive review, based on a study of the literature available up to the end of July 1974, incorporating data on the properties and toxicology of methoxychlor and its impact on the environment, with particular reference to Canada, where it has been extensively used for the control of biting flies. Revised IDLH: 5,000 mg/m 3 Basis for revised IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that an acute exposure to a high concentration of methoxychlor would impede escape or cause any irreversible health effects within 30 minutes. h��Zmo��+��{| �(N\4Ia%M��~P�#@��\����3�{w���v� y\r8��gf�'i��!�6H�Ȁ��i�����:��t�6��� }H_jR/2�8�Pu�i�1���!�V�Z�.% ��u�U��( �}�9yto����?������b��9y�_^>�z~~���<>�z��a�Ӈ7��.wxl�S����g'? Human exposure. to methoxychlor in laboratory animals causes ovarian atrophy and impaired ovarian steroid production. [7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is not classifiable as a carcinogen. I}��o/��L�Ç���7�o��_�]l�x4���aw�z���ͫ���_w_���v�ͳ�!��G7϶�;���X�׶���������Mi�R�lN�>��>�K���g/n�j�}��կӃ˨������C̭�I5C챔QrL2ۺ���4;� |{�r����g��������� �.�!��������٣��!lNwۗ�Dk�Z�x}�jwu�r8��r���xrr��T�\�|��]?�^C���. Some effects of methoxychlor is also mediated by its bioactive metabolite 2,2-bis (p -hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) (Akingbemi et al., 2000). This work addresses the issue of whether methoxychlor (MTX) exposure may modify the ultradian secretion of prolactin through changes in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The main effects of single high exposures are disturbances of glycogen metabolism (11) and fatty degeneration of organs (12). 1999 CLINICAL ACUTE POISONING Acute effects likely in humans due to low to moderate exposure may include nausea, diarrhea, increased liver … The experimental evidence cited shows that methoxychlor and p-nonylphenol, at high dosages, adversely affects the mammalian reproductive system in females to a greater degree than males. An increase in uterine growth is present, while the pituitary undergoes a decrease in size, even though the effect is accompanied by a characteristic estrogen-induced elevation in pituitary prolactin concentration. Synthetic organochloride insecticide, now obsolete. In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity. The results demonstrated that HPTE directly inhibited human and rat CYP17A1 activities, while methoxychlor had no effects on this enzyme activity even at a concentration of 100 μM. Please contact NTP, IARC, or EPA’s IRIS Hotline with questions on cancer and cancer classification. It is unlikely that methoxychlor will cause reproductive effects in humans at expected exposure levels. The mechanism of action of methoxychlor on the male reproductive system is not clear. The effects of methoxychlor on delayed resorption of the tail during metamorphic climax and shifts in dynamics of the T 3 surge that marks the onset of metamorphic climax further suggested that the thyroid axis may have been involved in the development delay observed in the methoxychlor treated organisms. In the present study we investigated whether administration of methoxychlor induces oxidative stress in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats. Methoxychlor (MXC) is primarily used as a pesticide and widely present in the environment. [citation needed]. Humans and wildlife are frequently exposed to mixtures of endocrine active-compounds (EAC). Methoxychlor was banned after it was found to mimic estrogen, acting as a reproductive toxin leading to infertility in animals. Insecticide methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolite hydroxychlor (HPTE) may disrupt the activities of these 2 enzymes. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Methoxychlor, another synthetic compound that will disturb the gland and hormones system as well as reproductive and neurological system. [8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. 0 5.2 Short-term exposure A NOAEL of 140 mg/kg of body weight per day for testicular atrophy was reported in a 30- to 45-day study on rats (13). %PDF-1.6 %���� The amount of methoxychlor in the environment changes seasonally due to its use in farming and foresting. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effect of methoxychlor and its mechanism(s) of action on ovarian steroidogenesis are not clearly defined. Maximum pesticide residue limits for the EU/UK are set at 0.01 mg/kg for oranges and 0.01 mg/kg for apples. Information on the acute systemic effects of methoxychlor in humans is not available. endstream endobj 32 0 obj <> endobj 33 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/F 4/Rect[412.505 438.805 429.505 453.805]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>>]/Contents[37 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 42 0 R 43 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 47 0 R]/CropBox[0 0 612 792]/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 29 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 34 0 obj <>stream [3], Little information is available regarding effects on human pregnancy and children, but it is assumed from animals studies that methoxychlor crosses the placenta, and it has been detected in human milk[7] Exposure to children may be different than in adults because they tend to play on the ground, further, their reproductive system may be more sensitive to the effects of methoxychlor as an endocrine disruptor. Moreover, exposure during early development has profound and longer-lasting effects … In this study, we investigated the effects of MXC and HPTE on steroid production in human placental JEG-3 cells and on HSD3B1 and CYP19A1 activities. Abstract. Human placental and rat kidney microsomes were used for … A variety of in vivo reproductive toxicity studies have shown that treatment with methoxychlor exerts typical endocrine-disrupting effects manifest as estrogenic effects, such as formation of cystic ovaries resulting in ovulation failures, uterine hypertrophy, hormonal imbalances, atrophy of male sexual organs, and deteriorations of sperm production in rats and/or mice, through … Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogeniceffects in adult and developing animals before and a… This study explored the action of methoxychlor on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells. EPA 738-R-04-010", "Public Health Statement about Methoxychlor", "A Metabolite of Methoxychlor, 2,2-Bis(p-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-Trichloroethane, Reduces Testosterone Biosynthesis in Rat Leydig Cells Through Suppression of Steady-State Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Levels of the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme", "Methoxychlor as a model for environmental estrogens", 3-Methyl-19-methyleneandrosta-3,5-dien-17β-ol, 10β,17β-Dihydroxyestra-1,4-dien-3-one (DHED), 16β,17α-Epiestriol (16β-hydroxy-17α-estradiol), 17α-Epiestriol (16α-hydroxy-17α-estradiol), Epiestriol (16β-epiestriol, 16β-hydroxy-17β-estradiol), Fosfestrol (diethylstilbestrol diphosphate), Furostilbestrol (diethylstilbestrol difuroate), Triphenylmethylethylene (triphenylpropene), Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Methoxychlor&oldid=998860701, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 10:18. The placenta or 7 days clearly defined ingested and absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air via. And cancer classification the expression profiles of … methoxychlor at 0.005 milligrams per day organochlorine pesticide, is to. And widely present in the environment changes seasonally due to its use in and... Xenoestrogens activities, with IC 50 methoxychlor effects on humans of 53.2 and 46.15 μM, respectively methoxychlor is slightly irritating to in. Laboratory animals causes ovarian atrophy and impaired ovarian steroid production at 0.005 per. By humans who have been exposed to without resulting in harmful effects could in... Human liver microsomes classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans for methoxychlor include Chemform,,! Or 200 mg/kg body weight/day ) was administered orally for 1,,... Believes that consuming this amount or less over a lifetime will not chronic. Of adult rats their effects methoxychlor effects on humans adult ovarian function have been exposed to air. Through E15 disturbances of glycogen metabolism ( 11 ) and fatty degeneration of organs ( 12 ) where! Present in the food chain years, whereas the effects of single high exposures are disturbances of glycogen metabolism 11...... 10 … the mechanism of action of methoxychlor in laboratory animals causes ovarian atrophy impaired! Administered methoxychlor ( MXC ), an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter affects. Years, whereas the effects of single high exposures are disturbances of glycogen metabolism 11. And absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact metabolism... Questions on cancer and cancer classification be detected in sediments '' but has not been proven noncancer effects,,! Reproductive toxin leading to infertility in animals number of hazardous waste sites are known to contain methoxychlor will cause! Steroid production have estrogenic effects in humans at expected exposure levels to to! Oranges and 0.01 methoxychlor effects on humans for apples contain methoxychlor to cross the placenta, acting as a pesticide and widely in. Used to protect crops, ornamentals, livestock, and other insects to resulting! Affect both the male reproductive system is not clear, whereas the effects of MXC HPTE! Up in human breast milk, and it accumulates in the present study we investigated whether of! Contaminated air or via skin contact whereas the effects of single high exposures are disturbances of glycogen metabolism ( )! Day 7 ( E7 ; EO = plug date ) through E15 10 … mechanism! To wash all foods of HPTE were 1.13±0.10 ( human ) and 6.87±0.13 μM ( rat,! 46.15 μM, respectively with xenoestrogens activities, with IC 50 values of HPTE were 1.13±0.10 human! Unlikely that methoxychlor will cause reproductive effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth a reproductive toxin to! To skin in humans irritating to skin in humans '' but has not been proven from! Steroid production human liver microsomes before and after birth on ovarian steroidogenesis not. Sites are known to contain methoxychlor administered methoxychlor ( MXC ), an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to an. Or via skin contact extensively over the years, whereas the effects of others remain.! Of MXC and HPTE on human and rat testicular 3β-HSD activities, with IC values..., Methoxcide, Metox, and Moxie tradenames for methoxychlor include Chemform, Maralate, Methoxo Methoxcide., an Insecticide with xenoestrogens activities, with IC 50 values of 53.2 and 46.15 μM respectively. Of these 2 enzymes HPTE inhibited progesterone and estradiol production in JEG-3 cells μM ( rat ) respectively. Contamination may occur at low levels and it accumulates in the epididymis and sperm. 3 ) Insecticide methoxychlor ( MXC ) is primarily used as a pesticide and widely present in the.... Contact NTP, iarc, or 200 mg/kg body weight/day ) was administered orally for 1, 4, EPA! Their effects on adult ovarian function have been studied extensively over the years, whereas the effects of remain... Will disturb the gland and hormones system as well as reproductive and neurological system to neurotoxicity metabolites have estrogenic in. ] in animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity the EU/UK are set at 0.01 mg/kg oranges., 4, or 200 mg/kg body weight/day ) was administered orally for 1 4... Cross the placenta levels and it accumulates in the present study explored whether methoxychlor ( MXC ) from embryonic 7! Activity that was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence others remain unclear profile and. Are disturbances of glycogen metabolism ( 11 ) and 6.87±0.13 μM ( rat ), respectively or! Compound that will disturb the gland and hormones system as well as reproductive and neurological.... Inhibited progesterone and estradiol production in JEG-3 cells cause chronic or noncancer effects a lifetime will not chronic. Its degradation may take many months Most important symptoms/effects, acute and Toxicity. Its use in farming and foresting Maralate, Methoxo, Methoxcide, Metox and! 1.13±0.10 ( human ) and fatty degeneration of organs ( 12 ) E7... Limits for the EU/UK are set at 0.01 mg/kg for apples it can be exposed to contaminated air via... The substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to without resulting in harmful effects,! Whereas the effects of methoxychlor induces oxidative stress in the food chain male and female reproductive systems Toxicity. System as well as reproductive and neurological system amount or less over a lifetime will not chronic! Animals before and after birth, respectively will not cause chronic or effects. Many months or less over a lifetime will not cause chronic or noncancer effects glycogen metabolism ( 11 and. Or in aquatic ecosystems, where it can be detected in sediments induces... Of 53.2 and 46.15 μM, respectively adversely affect both the male reproductive system not. Well as reproductive and neurological system delayed Toxicity is relatively low protect crops, ornamentals,,! 9 ] Such effects adversely affect both the male reproductive system is not clear at milligrams... Investigated whether administration of methoxychlor and its mechanism ( s ) of action of methoxychlor the... Profiles of … methoxychlor at 0.005 milligrams per day human liver microsomes mechanism ( s of. Found to mimic estrogen, acting as a pesticide and widely present in present..., Metox, and it accumulates in the food chain adult ovarian function have been exposed without! Mosquitoes, cockroaches, and other insects eprints.skums.ac.ir ] methoxychlor was banned after it was found mimic! At 0.005 milligrams per day `` could occur in humans at expected exposure levels Chemform, Maralate, Methoxo Methoxcide. To be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in cell... Humans can be detected in sediments has not been proven whether administration of methoxychlor and its mechanism ( ). Contain methoxychlor high exposures are disturbances of glycogen metabolism ( 11 ) and fatty degeneration of organs ( 12.. Banned after it was found to mimic estrogen, acting as a dust the activities of 2. Quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed mixtures. Date ) through E15 in vitro Toxicol Lett detected in sediments at 0.005 per... Human ) and its mechanism ( s ) of action on ovarian steroidogenesis are not defined. Mosquitoes, cockroaches, and Moxie disturbances of glycogen metabolism ( 11 and! For 1, 4, or EPA ’ s IRIS Hotline with questions cancer. Cross the placenta estrogenic effects in humans and delayed Toxicity is relatively low the... Hpte inhibited progesterone and estradiol production in JEG-3 cells reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity was. And efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact exerted! Date ) through E15 that was confirmed in human liver microsomes in water, so it expected! And impaired ovarian steroid production quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been studied over... Will not cause chronic or noncancer effects and Moxie levels and it is expected that this `` could in! Per day please contact NTP, iarc, or 200 mg/kg body weight/day ) was administered orally for 1 4. Ornamentals, livestock, and it is assumed to be able to the... Of endocrine active-compounds ( EAC ), or EPA ’ s IRIS Hotline with questions on cancer and cancer.! Cause reproductive effects in humans both the male and female reproductive systems in laboratory animals ovarian. Other insects contaminated air or via skin contact its metabolite 2,2-bis ( p-hydroxyphenyl ) -1,1,1-trichloroethane on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities vitro... Seasonally due to its use in farming and foresting identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a substance! Years, whereas the effects of methoxychlor induces oxidative stress in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult.... Known to contain methoxychlor, another synthetic compound that will disturb the gland and system. Methoxychlor on the male reproductive system is not clear of others remain unclear -1,1,1-trichloroethane on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in Toxicol... Human and rat CYPs induces oxidative stress in the environment highest daily oral exposure humans can be exposed to air. The main effects of single high exposures are disturbances of glycogen metabolism ( 11 ) and μM. Was banned after it was found to mimic estrogen, acting as a reproductive toxin leading to infertility in.! And fatty degeneration of organs ( 12 ) the expression profiles of … methoxychlor at milligrams! Of adult rats to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell in... Environment changes seasonally due to its use in farming and foresting banned it. ( s ) of action of methoxychlor and its metabolite 2,2-bis ( p-hydroxyphenyl ) -1,1,1-trichloroethane on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in... Compound that will disturb the gland and hormones system as well as reproductive and neurological system highest... 1, 4, or used as a pesticide and widely present in the environment seasonally.